City of Greater Geraldton

Area ~420 km north of Perth and covers ~12,625 square kilometres.
Towns City of Geraldton and town sites of Mullewa, Cape Burney, Walkaway, Moonooyooka, Pindar and Tenindewa.
Average Temperature Coastal: maximum of 29.7 °C in February and  minimum of 8.9 °C in July.
Inland: maximum of 36.8°C and minimum of 7.0°C.
Annual Rainfall Coastal: 446 mm
Inland: 336 mm (BoM, 2014)
ABS Profile Economic profile / Community profile

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The total population of the City of Greater Geraldton is ~40,500 (ABS 2011). The city of the Geraldton is the largest populated area, with an approximate population of 35,749.

The population in the City has increased since 2011, with a total growth percentage of 5.5%.

In the City of Greater Geraldton, 19% of the population are residents who were born overseas and 81% being born in Australia.  and approximately 16% are of indigenous heritage.

Estimates of the resident populations as at 30 June are released annually for Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Australia by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The estimates are generally revised 12 months later and final estimates are available after the following census. Visit the ABS website for further details.

The City has a diverse economy which includes mining, manufacturing, broadacre agriculture, tourism and fishing (MWDC, 2011). In the City of Greater Geraldton approximately 18,261 residents are employed in the work force. People are employed in service and retail related industries, as well as agriculture and mining industry.

Employment by sector (Service related industry, Retail related industry, Agriculture, fishing and forestry, Mining, Manufacturing, Construction, Other) is depicted in the chart below.

The main land uses as shown in the Local Planning Scheme for the City of Greater Geraldton includes, residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, mining and conservation reserves.

Priority conservation areas includes Burma Road Nature Reserve, Eradu Nature Reserve, Beetalyinna Nature Reserve, The Forty Four Mile Nature Reserve, Indarra Spring Nature Reserve, Erangy Spring Nature Reserve, Warrawah Nature Reserve, Wilroy Nature Reserve, Urawa Nature Reserve and Barrabarra Nature Reserve.

Nature Reserves

  • Conservation reserves in the NAR

    To view all the reserves in the Northern Agricultural Region, visit the Land use theme page or view the nature reserve map.

  • Burma Road Nature Reserve

    This nature reserve lies in the LGA of Greater Geraldton and cover’s an approximate area of 6900 hectares. The reserve is a “C” class reserve and is characterised by kwongan scrub heath.

The Cattamarra coal measure mainly underlies the coastline of the City of Greater Geraldton. The Cattamarra was formed during the Jurassic period from volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The formation comprises of siltstone, shale, claystone, coal and sandstone. The Yarragadee formation underlies the area of Greenough region including Cape Burney. The Yarragadee formation was formed during the Jurassic period form volcanic and sedimentary rock. The Yarragadee formation consists of fine to coarse grained sandstone with thin interbeds of shale. The Cadda formation lies south of the Cattamarra Coal Measure and north of the Yarragadee formation. The Cadda formation was formed during Jurassic period from volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The Cadda formation consists of grey shale, siltstone and sandstone.

The geology underlying the Moresby ranges comprises of serious of complex geology formations. Quartzofeldspathetic gneiss which is associated with the Northampton Complex.The Cadda formation underlies the area directly south and west of the Northampton Complex. The Cadda formation was formed during the Jurassic period from sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The Cadda formation consists of grey shale, siltstone and sandstone. The Yarragadee formation is the dominate underlying geology east of the Cadda formation. Lying east of Yarragadee formation and west of the town site of Mullewa is the Nangetty formation and Tumblagooda Sandsone, which was formed during carboniferous-permian and Ordovician period, respectively from sedimentary and volcanic rock. The Nangetty formation consists of diamictite, shale and sandstone. The Tumblagooda Sandstone consists of fine to coarse grained red-bed sandstone and minor siltstone. The Holmwood Shale underlies the area south of the Nangetty formation, which was formed during the Permian from sedimentary and volcanic rock. The Holmwood shale consists of grey shale, well-bedded clayey siltstone and interbedded limestone. The underlying geology within the area of the Mullewa town site and eastern portion of the CGG are the Gneiss and Granitic rocks, which forms a part of the Yilgarn Craton. The north eastern portion of the CGG consists of the Granite gneiss with greenstone enclaves. Gabbro and dolerite form the southern scarp of the Granite gneiss.

The coastline of the City of Greater Geraldton consists of deep calcareous sandy soils associated with alluvial plains and complex dune system. The area east of the coastline is characterised Loam earthy soils overlying gently rolling terrain. Sodic subsoils of red loamy duplexes overlies the Northampton Complex. Sandy and loamy duplexes of non-alkaline subsoils often overlies relics of an alluvial plain associated with river beds and terraces lies east of Northampton Complex.

Deep siliceous sandy soils often associated with a lateritic breakaway and long gentle slope broken by low gravel ridges and broad open depression, lies in the southern portion of the CGG. The eastern portion of the CGG is characterised by loamy earth soils of red shallow loams and red-brown hardpan soils overlying undulating plain and low hills/sandy rises. Deep sandy and sandy earth soils underlies the area associated with the boundary of the CGG and Shire of Yalgoo.

Please go to the below link for more information on soil and geology in the region

http://www.arcgis.com/apps/StorytellingTextLegend/index.html?appid=88b626db0f3a479e9b526a50b58f551b

Priority Fauna Species

IBRA Regions

  • Tallering sub-IBRA

    The Tallering sub-IBRA forms part of the Yalgoo IBRA. The Yalgoo IBRA is dominated by red sandy plain of low woodlands to open woodlands of Eucalyptus, Acacias and Callitris (Desmond and Chant, 2001d).

  • Geraldton Hills subregion (Geraldton Sandplains 1)

    The Geraldton Hills is located in the LGAs in the middle portion of the region. This subregion is characterised by sand heaths of emergent Banksia and Cypresses, York Gum woodlands on alluvial plains. Areas of limestone are dominated by proteaceous heath and Acacia scrubs. Low closed Acacia shrublands occupies much of the alluvial plains associated with the Greenough and Irwin Rivers (Desmond and Chant, 2001b).

  • Ancient Drainage subregion (Avon Wheatbelt 1)

    The Ancient Drainage subregion occurs in the eastern LGAs of the NAR. This subregion is characterised by Proteaceous scrub occupies much of the lateritic hills and outcrops. The alluvial plains associated with the drainage lines is dominated by eucalypts, Casuarinas, York Gum and Jam wattle woodlands (Beecham, 2001a).

Threatened Ecological Communities

  • *Subtropical and Temperate Coastal Saltmarsh

    Consists of the assemblage of plants, animals and micro-organisms associated with saltmarsh in coastal regions of sub-tropical and temperate Australia (south of 23o S latitude). The habitat is coastal areas under tidal influence. In southern latitudes saltmarsh are the dominant habitat in the intertidal zone and often occur in association with estuaries. It is typically restricted to the upper intertidal environment, generally between the elevation of the mean high tide, and the mean spring tide. The community consists mainly of salt-tolerant vegetation (halophytes) including: grasses, herbs, reeds, sedges and shrubs.

    Succulent herbs and grasses generally dominate and vegetation is generally <0.5m tall with the exception of some reeds and sedges. Many species of non-vascular plants are also found in saltmarsh, including epiphytic algae, diatoms and cyanobacterial mats. Saltmarsh consists of many vascular plant species but is dominated by relatively few families. There is also typically a high degree of endemism at the species level. The two most widely represented coastal saltmarsh plant families are the Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae. Four structural saltmarsh forms are currently recognised based on dominance of a particular vegetation type:

    • dominance by succulent shrubs (e.g. Tecticornia)
    • dominance by grasses (e.g. Sporobolus virginicus)
    • dominance by sedges and grasses (e.g. Juncus kraussii, Gahnia trifida)
    • dominance by herbs (e.g. low-growing creeping plants such as Wilsonia backhousei, Samolus repens, Schoenus nitens).

    Category (WA) – Priority 3(iii)

    Category EPBC Act – Vulnerable TEC

    For more information visit the DPaW website.

Priority Ecological Communities

  • Tallering Peak vegetation complexes (banded ironstone formation)

    Tallering Peak in the northwest is a massif of banded ironstone and jaspilite, with outcropping masses or rock along the spine. Vegetation is sparse and includes shrubs of only 1.2m of Acacia quadrimarginea, A ?coolgardiensis, Eremophila leucophylla, Thryptomene johnsonii, a smaller Baeckea or Thryptomene sp. and Ptilotus obovatus.

    Threats: mining

    Category (WA) – Priority 1

    For more information visit the DPaW website.

  • Plant assemblages of the Moresby Range system

    Includes the Melaleuca megacephala and Hakea pycnoneura thicket on stony slopes, Verticordia dominated low heath, and Allocasuarina campestris and Melaleuca uncinata thicket on superficial laterite, on Morseby Range.

    Threats: clearing for infrastructure

    For more information visit the DPaW website.

  • Coastal sands dominated by Acacia rostellifera, Eucalyptus oraria and Eucalyptus obtusiflora

    Floristically, this community is similar to other Acacia rostellifera communities but is differentiated on structure, being dominated by mallee eucalypts. The community occurs on limestone ridges, in some swales in the coastal dunes between Cape Burney and Dongara, on the Greenough Alluvial Flats on limestone soil and near Tarcoola Beach. Some very small occurrences have also been recorded on the limestone scarp north of the Buller River.

    Threats: Clearing

    Category (WA) – Priority 1

    For more information visit the DPaW website.

  • *Subtropical and Temperate Coastal Saltmarsh

    Consists of the assemblage of plants, animals and micro-organisms associated with saltmarsh in coastal regions of sub-tropical and temperate Australia (south of 23o S latitude). The habitat is coastal areas under tidal influence. In southern latitudes saltmarsh are the dominant habitat in the intertidal zone and often occur in association with estuaries. It is typically restricted to the upper intertidal environment, generally between the elevation of the mean high tide, and the mean spring tide. The community consists mainly of salt-tolerant vegetation (halophytes) including: grasses, herbs, reeds, sedges and shrubs.

    Succulent herbs and grasses generally dominate and vegetation is generally <0.5m tall with the exception of some reeds and sedges. Many species of non-vascular plants are also found in saltmarsh, including epiphytic algae, diatoms and cyanobacterial mats. Saltmarsh consists of many vascular plant species but is dominated by relatively few families. There is also typically a high degree of endemism at the species level. The two most widely represented coastal saltmarsh plant families are the Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae. Four structural saltmarsh forms are currently recognised based on dominance of a particular vegetation type:

    • dominance by succulent shrubs (e.g. Tecticornia)
    • dominance by grasses (e.g. Sporobolus virginicus)
    • dominance by sedges and grasses (e.g. Juncus kraussii, Gahnia trifida)
    • dominance by herbs (e.g. low-growing creeping plants such as Wilsonia backhousei, Samolus repens, Schoenus nitens).

    Category (WA) – Priority 3(iii)

    Category EPBC Act – Vulnerable TEC

    For more information visit the DPaW website.

Coastal Assets

  • Southgate Dune

    A large (approximately 200 ha in area), mobile dune which moves progressively in a north-east direction and acts as an important sediment source to beaches to the north. More information can be found in the City of Geraldton-Greenough Town Planning Scheme.

  • Primary and Secondary Coastal Dunes

    Primary dunes (from low water mark) and secondary dunes. Valued for recreational, aesthetic and cultural reasons, along with the services provided for storm protection  and habitat.

  • Grey’s Beach

    A sandy beach backed by a small dune, while offshore the sea floor is sandy with patches of seagrass. Erosion has been observed at this site for several decades and management options to address this coastal recession  are being considered. For more information see the City of Geraldton-Greenough’s Coastal Process Study – Greys Beach to Sunset Beach.

Marine Assets

  • Seagrass Meadows

    Seagrasses are flowering plants that complete their life cycle submerged in seawater. Western Australia has the world’s highest diversity of seagrasses, with 27 species occurring in shallow waters off the coast. Seagrasses form a vital component of marine ecosystems through their services as primary biomass producers, sources of habitat (including breeding and nursery areas) and dissolved oxygen, sediment traps, and nutrient cycling. Seagrass distribution is determined by a combination of shelter, sediment, turbidity, nutrient, temperature, current and tidal influences.

    Extensive seagrass meadows occur in protected near-shore areas of the NAR, where clear water, low nutrients and sandy sea floors prevail, and are dominated by the long strap-like Ribbonweed or Strapweed (Posidonia spp) and the thin-stemmed Wireweed (Amphibolis spp).

    Seagrass habitats are fragile and susceptible to damage and can take many years to recover from disturbance, such as physical damage/removal and shading due to algal blooms (as a result of increased nutrients), and sedimentation (due to dredging activities and erosion in catchment areas).

    More information on seagrasses in Western Australia can be found in the following publications: Flowers of the Ocean: WA’s Expansive Seagrass MeadowsThe Wonders of Weed Information Sheet; Fisheries Fact Sheet: Seagrasses; Establishing Reference and Monitoring Sites to Assess a Key Indicator of Ecosystem Health (Seagrass Health) on the central west Coast of Western Australia (see references).

     

  • Champion Bay Seagrass

    A number of dominant seagrass species including Amphibolis antarctica, Amphibolis griffithii and Posidonia sinuosa cover the shallow calcarenite reef that runs parallel to the beach for up to 1 km offshore. This seagrass is often deposited on the beach. Previous dredging operations associated with the redevelopment of the Geraldton Port in 2002-03 resulted in increased turbidity and sedimentation in the area and had a significant impact on the seagrasses of Champion Bay. The recovery of these seagrasses was researched by the CSIRO from 2005-07, which concluded that seagrass recover had begun and seagrass health continued to improve. For more information see ‘Applying the learning’ prepared by Mulligan Environmental.

Groundwater Areas

  • Gascoyne Groundwater Area

    The Gascoyne Groundwater Area extends north to Kalbarri and bounds the Arrowsmith Groundwater Area east to pastoral country. The largest groundwater aquifer occurs in the Yarragadee Formation, which has an estimated yield of 22.5 million m³/year (NACC, 2005). Groundwater from fractured rock aquifers in the eastern, inland part of the region is predominantly saline and poor yielding. This region of the Gascoyne Groundwater Area falls under the Carnarvon Artesian Basin Allocation Plan.

  • Arrowsmith Groundwater Area

    The Arrowsmith Groundwater Area spans approximately 10,300 km2 of land and currently has a total groundwater availability of around 151 million m3/year. The largest groundwater aquifers occur in the Yarragadee and Parmelia formations that together receive over 80 per cent of the total direct rainfall recharge, although the quality is variable. The Superficial formation is an important resource near the coast, and similarly to the deeper aquifers, the quality and quantity of the groundwater is variable.

    For information on the allocation plan click here.

  • Allanooka Borefield

    Located 50 km south of Geraldton in the Arrowsmith groundwater area, the Allanooka Borefield houses the bores and summit reservoir that provide an integrated scheme water supply for the area between and including the City of Greater Geraldton and the towns of  Dongara/Port Denison in the Shire of Irwin.

Rivers

  • Irwin River

    Drainage Basin Length (km) Catchment Area (km2) Average Stream Salinity (mg/L) Key Characteristics
    Greenough 160 6,072 3000-35000 Originates east of Mullewa, and has middle and lower reaches with perennial flow due to discharge from the groundwater systems. The river enters the ocean at Dongara and the mouth of the river is a coastal lagoon system, which is blocked by a sandbar for most of the year.
  • Greenough River

    Drainage Basin Length (km) Catchment Area (km2) Average Stream Salinity (mg/L) Key Characteristics
    Greenough 306 12,568 3000-35000 Originates in the pastoral region north east of Mullewa, and flows through farming areas, entering the ocean at Cape Burney, south of Geraldton. The sandbar across the estuary is only opened by significant flows. It contains numerous pools including Eradu, Beetalyinna and Ellendale.
  • Chapman River

    Drainage Basin Length (km) Catchment Area (km2) Average Stream Salinity (mg/L) Key Characteristics
    Greenough 80 1,644 3000-35000 Originates east of Yuna and drains the farming areas of the Chapman Valley. The river enters the ocean within the northern suburbs of Geraldton and is only open to the ocean during winter flows.

Wetlands

  • Greenough River Pools

  • Ellendale Pool

    A scenic water hole formed along the Greenough River, at the base of a rocky gorge. Ellendale Pool is popular for recreational activities and nature observation.

Birdlife Midwest

Contact: Sally Vigilante

Chapman River Firends

Drummond Cove Progress Association

Mullewa Dryland Farmers Initiative

North East Farming Futures

Phone: 08 9964 7022 Website: www.neffgroup.com.au

Northern Agricultural Catchments Council

Work Geraldton Office 201 Lester Avenue PO Box 7168 Geraldton WA 6530 Work Perenjori Office Corner of Fowler Street and Timmings Street PO Box 95 Perenjori WA 6620 Work Jurien Bay Office 69 Bashford Street PO Box 872 Jurien Bay WA 6516 Phone: (08) 9938 0100 (Geraldton) Phone: (08) 9973 1444 (Perenjori) Phone: (08) 9652 0872 (Jurien Bay) Website: NACC Website

Point Moore Coastcare Group

Website: http://www.supergreenme.com/PtMooreCoastcareGroup

Sunset Beach Coastcare Group

Yuna Farm Improvement Group

Contact: Matt Johnson
Work PO Box 27 Nabawa WA 6532 Australia Cell Phone: 0438950616
 | Size: 1st Apr 2013 Quantifying the cost of climate change impacts on local government assets  | Size: 1 MB 1st Sep 2014 Coastal hazard risk management and adaptation planning guidelines  | Size: 2 MB 6th Nov 2015 City Geraldton Invasive Species Management Plan  | Size: 2 MB 1st Jun 2012 Local Action for a Low Carbon Future  | Size: 21st Sep 2015 Arrowsmith Groundwater Allocation Plan  | Size: 29th Jul 2014 South West Wetlands Monitoring Program Report 1977 – 2012  | Size: 59 MB 25th Mar 2015 Coastal Processes Study - Greys Beach to Sunset Beach  | Size: 4th Nov 2012 Moresby Range Management Strategy  | Size: 31st Dec 1969 Geraldton Regional Flora and Vegetation Survey  | Size: 18th Jan 2006 Greenough rapid catchment appraisal  | Size: 27th Oct 2014 Geology of the Northern Perth Basin, WA (field guide)  | Size: 27th Oct 2014 Stratigraphy and Structure of the Onshore Northern Perth Basin  | Size: 17th Jun 2015 Identification of high quality agricultural land in the Mid West region: Stage 1 - Geraldton planning region  | Size: 26th Feb 2015 Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan (City of Greater Geraldton and the Shires of Irwin, Northampton and Chapman Valley)  | Size: 100 B 26th Aug 2014 Integrated Weed Management Hub  | Size: 11 MB 31st Aug 2010 Herpetofauna of the Geraldton Region, Western Australia (1983)  | Size: 4th Sep 2015 The Hydrology of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems in the Northern Perth Basin  | Size: 2 MB 17th Feb 2015 History of Aboriginal Languages of the Midwest, Gascoyne and Murchison Region  | Size: 22 MB 28th Nov 2014 Biodiversity Assessment and Vegetation Mapping of the Northern Agricultural Region, Western Australia (2005)  | Size: 22nd Jun 2015 Dongara Cape Burney Vegetation Assessment 2010
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